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# The More Technical Aspects of Combat

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From browsing these forums and my experience in-game I have determined that:

1. Probably almost all % bonuses are additive (i.e. 10*(1+.25+.3) instead of 10* 1.25*1.3)
2.  Lashes are calculated off of the pre DR damage
3. The measured values of base attack, recovery, and reload frames for weapons
4. Modifiers stack in the following manner:
• Actives/modals/auras take highest (I believe looking at each stat given individually)
• Equipment takes highest (no weapons included)
• Resting bonuses stack with the survival camping bonus
• Passives and weapon bonuses stack

However, there are a number of aspects I am not sure about:

1. Do crits/grazes get applied to the end damage of the attack (multiplicative) or are they thrown in with the rest of the % damage modifier bonuses?
2. Similarly, does the minimum hit get calculated as 20% of net pre-DR damage or is it 20% of the base damage?
3. How do action speeds get modified?  So if i have +50% reload speed and the reload takes 120 frames, is it calculated as 120/(1+.5)=80 frames, or is it 120*(1-.5)=60 frames?
4. To what parts of an attack does dexterity apply to where attack, reload, and recovery are the 3 phases?
5. How are damage rolls determined?  For example the war bow is 13-20 dmg, does it just roll to pick an integer of this range?
6. How are decimals handled and when (if ever) are values rounded and is the rounding merely for display purposes or also for mathematics?
7. Does the wounding modifier (+25% damage over 5s) deal raw damage or the damage type of the attack and does it behave the same math-wise as lashes?

Any and all help or links to relevant information are appreciated

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What I know off the top of my head (the rest I'd have to test or look up):

4. All of them.

5. Pretty much.

6. Rounded up from .5 up, down from .4 down. I believe this rounding is just for display and all math is handled under the hood with one-decimal precision.

"Time is not your enemy. Forever is."

— Fall-From-Grace, Planescape: Torment

"It's the questions we can't answer that teach us the most. They teach us how to think. If you give a man an answer, all he gains is a little fact. But give him a question, and he'll look for his own answers."

— Kvothe, The Wise Man's Fears

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Probably almost all % bonuses are additive (i.e. 10*(1+.25+.3) instead of 10* 1.25*1.3)

Damage % bonuses - yes, all are applied additively. Reloading speed % bonuses - are applied multiplicatively. And attack/recovery bonuses go beyond that.

Lashes are calculated off of the pre DR damage

Yes, but iirc it goes against 1/4 of corresponding (to lash damage type) DR.

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Do crits/grazes get applied to the end damage of the attack (multiplicative) or are they thrown in with the rest of the % damage modifier bonuses?

Thrown with the rest. Example: soul whip with 20 might graze coef: 1 + 0.2 + 0.3 - 0.5

Similarly, does the minimum hit get calculated as 20% of net pre-DR damage or is it 20% of the base damage?

Until you asked I was pretty sure that it is "20% of net pre-DR damage". Like you hit for 30 damage against 40 DR, and 6 dmg still go through.

Iirc it works that way, and I had no doubts yet, which would motivate me to explicitly test it.

How do action speeds get modified?  So if i have +50% reload speed and the reload takes 120 frames, is it calculated as 120/(1+.5)=80 frames, or is it 120*(1-.5)=60 frames?

New reloading time will be 80 frames. And if you would also have Gunner talent, it would be: 120/1.5/1.2 = 66.7 frames.

Note: recovery time is calculated differently.

To what parts of an attack does dexterity apply to where attack, reload, and recovery are the 3 phases?

Full action cycle = 4 frames delay + action cycle;

Action cycle = attack time + recovery time + reloading time.

Dexterity applies to all those phases (but seems it doesn't affect delay).

Each phase time equals base_phase_time / (1 + dex_bonus)

How are damage rolls determined?  For example the war bow is 13-20 dmg, does it just roll to pick an integer of this range?

No idea. But guess so. Isn't this the most rational approach afterall? Edited by MaxQuest
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So since dex applies to all parts of an attack if say you have +10% action speed from dex, +50% reload speed, +20% reload speed, +20% attack speed, on say an arbalest, which according the somewhere on these forums was measured as 54 attack frames, 73 recovery frames and 168 reload frames.  From the looks of the data for all the other weapons as well, it is suggestive of there being the 4 frame delay after every phase (for instance a hunting bow is 34 attack, 54 recovery for a total of 88).  So i suspect the actual arbalest values are 50, 70, 165 respectively for a total of 285+4*3 = 297.

So if I understand correctly, the final time per attack would be 4*3 + 50/(1.1*1.2) + 70/1.2 + 165/(1.5*1.1) = 196.2 +12 = 208.2

which would correspond to about an effective +42.7% action speed multiplier

Also how do +x% grazes converted to hits work?  Are they additive as well?  So if I have 10% g->h and another 20% g->h, do I get 10% +20%=30%  instead of 1-((1-.1)*(1-.2))=28% ?

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